Lay Summaries - Volume 2 Issue 2

Lay Summary:  This study explores physician preferences in relation to future therapies for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and characteristics that are relevant to physician decision-making when choosing a potential therapy for a patient with NASH. The results of a short online survey completed by 121 specialist physicians determined that the primary factor that influences treatment decision-making is efficacy, and that a wide range of non-invasive techniques are used to diagnose NASH, while confirmatory liver biopsy is not performed by all physicians despite guideline recommendations.
Lay Summary:  High dietary intake of total phenolic acids is associated with a lower prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance. A high intake of hydroxybenzoic acids, a class of phenolic acids, is associated with a lower prevalence of steatosis and clinically significant fibrosis, while a high intake of hydroxycinnamic acids, another class of phenolic acids, is associated with a lower prevalence of insulin resistance.
Lay Summary:  Patient biliary tract tumors grown in immunocompromised mice are an invaluable resource in the treatment of biliary tract cancers. They can be used to guide individualized cancer treatment in high-risk patients.
Lay Summary:  This study examines the metabolic role of a tumor suppressor, miR-22, that can be induced by metabolic stimulators such as bile acids. Our novel data revealed that the metabolic silencing effect of miR-22 occurs as a result of reductions in metabolic stimulators, which likely contribute to the development of fatty liver. Consistent with this finding, an miR-22 inhibitor effectively reversed both alcohol- and diet-induced fatty liver; miR-22 inhibition is a promising therapeutic option which could be used in combination with obeticholic acid.
Lay Summary:  Surgical resection represents the only curative treatment option for patients with biliary tract cancer, but not all patients benefit to the same extent in terms of overall survival. Here, we provide evidence that serum levels of an inflammatory mediator (suPAR) are indicative of a patient's postoperative outcome and might thus help to identify the ideal surgical candidates.
Lay Summary:  It has been suggested that preserving liver grafts with a technique called (dual) hypothermic oxygenated machine perfusion ([D]HOPE) leads to better outcomes after transplantation than if livers are stored on ice, especially if an organ is of lesser quality. In this study, we showed that DHOPE could be used to preserve liver grafts for up to 24 h. This extended procedure could be used globally to facilitate transplantation and expand the donor pool.