Lay Summaries - Volume 3 Issue 1

 
Lay Summary:  The hepatitis B virus can maintain itself in the liver for a patient's lifetime, causing liver injury and cancer. We have clarified exactly how it maintains itself in an infected cell. This now means we have a better idea at how to target the virus and cure a chronic infection.
Lay Summary:  The level of scarring is linked to prognosis in autoimmune liver diseases such as primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cholangitis, and autoimmune hepatitis; hence, the scarring process is a possible target for novel therapy. Investigating the scarring process using highly specific technology, we show that the scarring process is different between the 3 autoimmune liver diseases, and this may have important implications for the development of medical treatment.
Lay Summary:  Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic disease affecting the liver. People who suffer from PBC are at risk of serious long-term complications. Information from certain blood tests can be used to estimate the likelihood of experiencing long-term complications. The results of this study showed that based on blood test results, people taking obeticholic acid, with or without ursodeoxycholic acid, for PBC were predicted to have a better outcome than those taking placebo.
Lay Summary:  This study looked for potential environmental triggers in patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) living in the north-east of England and north Cumbria. We found that PBC was more common in urban areas with a history of coal mining and high levels of cadmium whereas PSC was more common in rural areas with lower levels of social deprivation.
Lay Summary:  Women with acute liver failure appear to be sicker than men and more often require urgent Status-1 waitlisting. There were no sex disparities in waitlist removal because of clinical deterioration or liver transplantation. This is in contrast to chronic liver disease, where sex disparities exist. The Status-1 waitlisting that women with acute liver failure receive may in part mitigate sex disparities in liver transplantation.
Lay Summary:  Obesity-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a most common chronic liver disease in the Western world and can progress to liver cirrhosis and cancer. No treatment is currently available for this disease. The present study reveals an important factor (macrophage-derived TSP1) that drives macrophage activation and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease development and progression and that could serve as a therapeutic target for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/steatohepatitis.
Lay Summary:  Today, it is hard to predict whether a patient with fatty liver disease will progress to more severe liver disease. This study shows that measuring muscle health (the patient's muscle volume and how much fat they have in their muscles) could help identify the more vulnerable patients and enable early prevention of severe liver disease.
Lay Summary:  Patients with cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and clinically significant portal hypertension (defined as a hepatic venous pressure gradient ≥10 mmHg) can undergo resection with acceptable mortality, morbidity, liver decompensation rates, and a textbook outcome. These results can be achieved in selected patients with preserved liver function, good general status, and sufficient remnant liver volume.
Lay Summary:  Trial registration is fundamental to our understanding and interpretation of results, as it provides information on all relevant clinical trials (to place the results in a broader context), and on the details of their associated protocols (to ensure that the scientific plan is followed). Once a randomised controlled trial (RCT) is completed, the trial results are usually publicly shared via scientific articles that are expected to thoroughly and objectively report them. This study shows that half of the RCTs evaluating transarterial chemoembolisation for hepatocellular carcinoma were not registered, and identified major discrepancies between registered and published primary outcome favouring significant results.
    Research Articles
  • Abstract Image
    Giuliana Amaddeo, Raffaele Brustia, Manon Allaire, Marie Lequoy, Clémence Hollande, Hélène Regnault, Lorraine Blaise, Nathalie Ganne-Carrié, Olivier Séror, Edouard Larrey, Chetana Lim, Olivier Scatton, Sanaa El Mouhadi, Violaine Ozenne, François Paye, Pierre Balladur, Anthony Dohan, Pierre-Philippe Massault, Stanislas Pol, Marco Dioguardi Burgio, Valérie Vilgrain, Ailton Sepulveda, Francois Cauchy, Alain Luciani, Daniele Sommacale, Vincent Leroy, Francoise Roudot-Thoraval, Mohamed Bouattour, Jean-Charles Nault on behalf of the Paris Liver Cancer Group
    JHEP Reports, Vol. 3, Issue 1
Lay Summary:  During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic era, fewer patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) presented to the multidisciplinary tumour board, especially with a first diagnosis of HCC. Patients with HCC had a treatment delay that was longer in the COVID-19 period than in 2019.
Lay Summary:  Obesity is progressively increasing worldwide and is paralleled by fat accumulation in the liver (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease [NAFLD]), the most common chronic liver disease worldwide. NAFLD can alter liver structure and function, with a variety of consequences ranging from asymptomatic and subclinical alterations to cirrhosis and cancer. (13C)-Methacetin breath test, a non-invasive diagnostic tool, can reveal early subclinical alterations of liver dynamic function in individuals with obesity and in patients with NAFLD.
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