Lay Summaries - Volume 4 Issue 3

Lay Summary:  Hepatitis delta virus causes the most severe form of viral hepatitis. Despite positive recent developments, effective treatments remain a major clinical need. Herein, we show that immune-modulators that trigger the NF-κB pathways could be effective for the treatment of hepatitis delta infections.
Lay Summary:  Real-world data depicting the outcome of patients with advanced biliary tract cancer outside the framework of controlled trials remain rare despite being extremely important for clinical decision-making. This study therefore provides important real-world data on the established first- and second-line treatments with gemcitabine + cisplatin and FOLFOX, as well as on other chemotherapy regimens or later lines of chemotherapy. It further demonstrates that the use of FOLFIRINOX is associated with promising survival and that there is an association between various clinical parameters such as pre-therapeutic albumin, bilirubin or carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels and survival.
Lay Summary:  Novel machine learning models generated accurate risk scores for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic viral hepatitis. HCC ridge score was consistently more accurate than existing HCC risk scores. These models may be incorporated into electronic medical health systems to develop appropriate cancer surveillance strategies and reduce cancer death.
Lay Summary:  Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a syndrome that is associated with high short-term mortality. Surgical procedures are a known precipitating event for ACLF. This study investigates the role of preoperative insertion of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) on postoperative mortality and ACLF development. Patients with TIPS insertion before a surgical procedure exhibit improved postoperative survival and lower rates of postoperative ACLF, especially in patients undergoing visceral surgery and with a high CLIF-C AD prognostic score. Thus, this study suggests preoperative TIPS insertion in those high-risk patients.